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Network Programming GNDU MSc IT Computer Science Study Material ebook Lecture Notes pdf Online Download|Neeraj K Anand|Anand Technical Publishers

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Network Programming GNDU MSc IT Computer Science Study Material ebook Lecture Notes pdf Online Download|Neeraj K Anand|Anand Technical Publishers

 

Author’s Words

 I strongly believe that the Almighty God alone plans every thing that happens in the world. So, I sincerely thanks the Almighty God for showering his blessings upon me and using me to write this book. 

I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my colleagues and students whom encouragement and co-operation have been source of great inspiration to me. I am thankful to my father Sh. Om Prakash Anand, my son Param Anand and my dear wife Neetu Anand for bringing me out this book. I hope that this edition of the book will prove to be more useful to the Science and Engineering students. Any suggestions for further improvement of the book will be gratefully acknowledged by the both author and publisher. Finally, we would like to thank my colleagues in the various Institutes whom have encouraged and assisted us to make our best efforts in bringing out this book.                                                               

NIT – Warangal, Telangana

                                                                                                Neeraj K. Anand

October 2021

Dedication

In The Everlasting Memory of My Mother

Late Smt. Nirmal Anand

[embedyt]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-DNw7iybADw[/embedyt]

About The Book

A comprehensive Network Programming Book covers the topic of network sockets, implementing Internet Protocols, Inter Process Communication, Socket Programming, Communication Protocols and Transport Layer Interface Concepts etc. This Book is for M.sc Computer Science & Information Technology Students who were study in Guru Nanak Dev University. The objective of this book will provide the basic knowledge of the paradigms of Network Programming so that student able to understand the topics of Berkley socket, TLI, FIFO, UNIX command Structure, Shell Programming, UNIX Signals etc. Second Objective of this book is to familiarize students with advanced concepts of Networks, Network Programming in UNIX Environment.

This book covers core concepts, such as hostname resolution with DNS, that are very useful to the functioning of the latest web technology. You’ll study into the fundamental network protocols, TCP and UDP. Essential techniques for networking technology such as client-server and peer-to-peer models are explained in very simple way. You’ll also study HTTP and HTTPS from both the client and server perspective. To keep up with current trends, you’ll apply the concepts covered in this book to gain insights into network programming for IoT. You’ll even get to grips with network monitoring and implementing security best practices. By the end of this book, you’ll have experience of working with client-server applications, and be able to implement new network programs.

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Syllabus (M.Sc. Computer Science – 3rd Semester (GNDU)

Sockets and Socket Address structures, Concept of Zombies, Daemon Processes, Super servers, Concurrent versus Iterative servers, Protocol Independence, Error Handling : Wrapper functions, OSI Model, Unix standards.

TCP Connection establishment & Termination, Port Numbers and Concurrent Servers, Protocol Usage by common Internet Applications.

UDP Communication Semantics, UDP Echo Server, Echo Client working, Protocol Usage by Common Internet Applications.

Sockets Address Structures, Byte ordering & Manipulation Functions, TCP Socket System Calls, TCP Client-Server E.g., I/O Multiplexing, Signal Handling in Concurrent Servers.

Socket Options, Elementary Names Address Conversions, Ipv4 and Ipv6 Interoperability.

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Chapter.1 : Elementary Unix Sockets

Network Programming……………………………………………………………………………. 9

What is a Socket ?……………………………………………………………………………………. 11

Where is Socket used ?……………………………………………………………………………. 11

Explain different types of sockets…………………………………………………….. 14

Explain Socket Descriptors. write Socket communication domains…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14

how to Specifying An Endpoint Address for Socket ?………………………. 15

Explain the characteristics of different unix Socket types……….. 16

How file descriptor functions act with sockets ? Write the way to terminate the socket…………………………………………………………………………….. 17

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Chapter.2 : Unix Socket Address Structures

discuss briefly unix Socket Address Structures…………………………….. 19

discuss IPv4 & generic Socket Address Structure……………………………. 19

discuss IPv6 & generic Socket Address Structure……………………………. 22

Differentiate between socket address structures of IPv4, IPv6, Unix domain, datalink, and storage…………………………………………………… 23

how to Socket address structure passed from process to kernel and kernel to process ?…………………………………………………………………………. 24

Why must value-result arguments such as the length of a socket address structure be passed by reference?…………………………………….. 24

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Chapter.3 : Concept Of Zombies & Daemon Processes

what do mean by zombie process ? Explain briefly…………………………. 26

WHAT ARE Daemon Processes ? WRITE THE METHODS TO START A DAEMON……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF syslogd Daemon ?………………………………………… 27

WHAT PERFORM syslog FUNCTION ? discuss the levels and facilities of log messages………………………………………………………………………………………. 28

discuss the technique to daemonizes the process using daemon_init Function…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30

discuss inetd Daemon using telnet server. why its is called a internet server ?…………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

discuss the various steps performed by inetd Daemon to execute a server……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37

discuss inetd Daemon descriptors when a new connection request arrives from a FTP client……………………………………………………………………… 39

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Chapter.4 : Concurrent And Iterative Servers

what do you mean by client and server. Discuss Concurrent and Iterative servers. Write their advantages and disadvantages. Also differentiate them……………………………………………………………………….. 43

discuss wrapper functions to handle errors occur in unix networking program…………………………………………………………………………….. 52

what do you mean by Concurrency And Asynchronous I/O…………… 53

Chapter.5 : Study Of OSI Model And Unix Standards

osi Model……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55

Unix Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………… 56

Chapter.6 : TCP Communication Between Client And Server

discuss the techniques to establish and terminate the TCP connection between client and server…………………………………………….. 58

TCP State Transition Diagram………………………………………………………………….. 61

explain the packets exchange operation  during tcp connection establishment and termination………………………………………………………….. 63

TCP Port Numbers And Concurrent Servers………………………………………….. 64

Protocol Usage by Common Internet Applications…………………………….. 66

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Chapter.7 : udP Communication Between Client And Server

Elementary UDP Sockets…………………………………………………………………………… 68

recvfrom And sendto Functions………………………………………………………………… 69

UDP Echo Server : main Function………………………………………………………………. 70

discuss Simple echo client/server using UDP…………………………………….. 70

UDP Echo Server : dg_echo Function………………………………………………………… 71

UDP Echo Client : main Function……………………………………………………………….. 73

UDP Echo Client: dg_cli Function……………………………………………………………. 74

Lost Datagrams………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75

Verifying Received Response……………………………………………………………………. 75

what will happen when starting the client without starting the server……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77

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Chapter.8 : Socket Address Structures

Byte Ordering Functions………………………………………………………………………….. 79

explain the functions used to convert processor byte order into network byte order for TCP/IP applications…………………………………….. 80

Byte Manipulation Functions………………………………………………………………….. 83

inet_aton, inet_addr, And inet_ntoa Functions………………………………….. 84

explain the functions that are used to convert internet addresses between ascii strings and network byte ordered binary values………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84

inet_pton And inet_ntop Functions………………………………………………………… 85

sock_ntop And Related Functions…………………………………………………………… 87

what is the disadvantage of inet_ntop function……………………………. 87

readn, writen, And readline Functions……………………………………………….. 89

Chapter.9 : Elementary TCP Sockets And TCP Socket

System Calls 

Major System Calls Used With Sockets…………………………………………………. 94

Elementary TCP Sockets…………………………………………………………………………… 96

Socket Function………………………………………………………………………………………….. 98

AF_xxx Versus PF_xxx………………………………………………………………………………….. 99

Connect Function……………………………………………………………………………………… 100

bind Function……………………………………………………………………………………………. 101

listen Function……………………………………………………………………………………….. 103

accept Function……………………………………………………………………………………….. 106

fork Function……………………………………………………………………………………………. 108

exec Function……………………………………………………………………………………………. 109

Concurrent Servers………………………………………………………………………………… 111

close Function…………………………………………………………………………………………… 113

getsockname And getpeername Functions……………………………………………. 114

Chapter.10 : TCP Client/Server Communication

Functions 

TCP Client/Server Communication…………………………………………………………. 117

Normal Session Startup………………………………………………………………………….. 121

Normal Session Termination………………………………………………………………….. 122

POSIX Signal Handling……………………………………………………………………………… 124

POSIX Signal Semantics…………………………………………………………………………….. 126

SIGCHLD Signals…………………………………………………………………………………………. 126

wait And waitpid Functions…………………………………………………………………. 128

difference between wait and waitpid Functions……………………………. 129

A Connection Abort Before accept Returns………………………………………… 132

Termination of Server Process……………………………………………………………… 134

SIGPIPE Signal…………………………………………………………………………………………… 135

Crashing of Server Host…………………………………………………………………………. 136

Crashing and Rebooting of Server Host……………………………………………… 137

Shutdown of Server Host……………………………………………………………………….. 137

Chapter.11 : I/O Multiplexing And Signal Handling

In Concurrent Servers 

under what situations i/o Multiplexing is used in network applications ?

which functions are capable for i/o Multiplexing ?……………………… 138

I/O Models…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 138

discuss the five basic i/o models of unix………………………………………….. 138

Comparison of the I/O Models…………………………………………………………………. 142

select Function…………………………………………………………………………………………. 143

Under What Conditions Is a Descriptor Ready?………………………………. 146

str_cli Function………………………………………………………………………………………. 148

Batch Input and Buffering……………………………………………………………………… 150

shutdown Function…………………………………………………………………………………….. 152

TCP Echo Server…………………………………………………………………………………………. 153

discuss with example the behaviour of tcp server before and after the clients have establish a connections……………………………. 153

pselect Function………………………………………………………………………………………. 157

poll Function…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 159

Chapter.12 : Elementary Names Address Conversions 

discuss the methods to convert names into numeric addresses for communication……………………………………………………………………………………… 162

gethostbyname Function………………………………………………………………………….. 163

gethostbyaddr Function………………………………………………………………………….. 165

Getservbyname And Getservbyport Functions…………………………………….. 166

Chapter.13 : Interoperability Between IPv4 And

IPv6 servers 

discuss the techniques for Interoperability between IPv4 and IPv6 server……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 170

discuss the techniques for Interoperability between IPv6 client and IPv4 server………………………………………………………………………………………. 173

tabulate the Interoperability between IPv4 and IPv6 server……… 174

explain the IPv6 Address-Testing Macros………………………………………… 175

explain the Source Code Portability between IPv4 and IPv6………… 176

Chapter.1 : Elementary Unix Sockets

Network Programming……………………………………………………………………………. 9

What is a Socket ?……………………………………………………………………………………. 11

Where is Socket used ?……………………………………………………………………………. 11

Explain different types of sockets…………………………………………………….. 14

Explain Socket Descriptors. write Socket communication domains…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14

how to Specifying An Endpoint Address for Socket ?………………………. 15

Explain the characteristics of different unix Socket types……….. 16

How file descriptor functions act with sockets ? Write the way to terminate the socket…………………………………………………………………………….. 17

Chapter.2 : Unix Socket Address Structures

discuss briefly unix Socket Address Structures…………………………….. 19

discuss IPv4 & generic Socket Address Structure……………………………. 19

discuss IPv6 & generic Socket Address Structure……………………………. 22

Differentiate between socket address structures of IPv4, IPv6, Unix domain, datalink, and storage…………………………………………………… 23

how to Socket address structure passed from process to kernel and kernel to process ?…………………………………………………………………………. 24

Why must value-result arguments such as the length of a socket address structure be passed by reference?…………………………………….. 24

Chapter.3 : Concept Of Zombies & Daemon Processes

what do mean by zombie process ? Explain briefly…………………………. 26

WHAT ARE Daemon Processes ? WRITE THE METHODS TO START A DAEMON……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF syslogd Daemon ?………………………………………… 27

WHAT PERFORM syslog FUNCTION ? discuss the levels and facilities of log messages………………………………………………………………………………………. 28

discuss the technique to daemonizes the process using daemon_init Function…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30

discuss inetd Daemon using telnet server. why its is called a internet server ?…………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

discuss the various steps performed by inetd Daemon to execute a server……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37

discuss inetd Daemon descriptors when a new connection request arrives from a FTP client……………………………………………………………………… 39

Chapter.4 : Concurrent And Iterative Servers

what do you mean by client and server. Discuss Concurrent and Iterative servers. Write their advantages and disadvantages. Also differentiate them……………………………………………………………………….. 43

discuss wrapper functions to handle errors occur in unix networking program…………………………………………………………………………….. 52

what do you mean by Concurrency And Asynchronous I/O…………… 53

Chapter.5 : Study Of OSI Model And Unix Standards

osi Model……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55

Unix Standards…………………………………………………………………………………………… 56

Chapter.6 : TCP Communication Between Client And Server

discuss the techniques to establish and terminate the TCP connection between client and server…………………………………………….. 58

TCP State Transition Diagram………………………………………………………………….. 61

explain the packets exchange operation  during tcp connection establishment and termination………………………………………………………….. 63

TCP Port Numbers And Concurrent Servers………………………………………….. 64

Protocol Usage by Common Internet Applications…………………………….. 66

Chapter.7 : udP Communication Between Client And Server

Elementary UDP Sockets…………………………………………………………………………… 68

recvfrom And sendto Functions………………………………………………………………… 69

UDP Echo Server : main Function………………………………………………………………. 70

discuss Simple echo client/server using UDP…………………………………….. 70

UDP Echo Server : dg_echo Function………………………………………………………… 71

UDP Echo Client : main Function……………………………………………………………….. 73

UDP Echo Client: dg_cli Function……………………………………………………………. 74

Lost Datagrams………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75

Verifying Received Response……………………………………………………………………. 75

what will happen when starting the client without starting the server……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77

Chapter.8 : Socket Address Structures

Byte Ordering Functions………………………………………………………………………….. 79

explain the functions used to convert processor byte order into network byte order for TCP/IP applications…………………………………….. 80

Byte Manipulation Functions………………………………………………………………….. 83

inet_aton, inet_addr, And inet_ntoa Functions………………………………….. 84

explain the functions that are used to convert internet addresses between ascii strings and network byte ordered binary values………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84

inet_pton And inet_ntop Functions………………………………………………………… 85

sock_ntop And Related Functions…………………………………………………………… 87

what is the disadvantage of inet_ntop function……………………………. 87

readn, writen, And readline Functions……………………………………………….. 89

Chapter.9 : Elementary TCP Sockets And TCP Socket

System Calls 

Major System Calls Used With Sockets…………………………………………………. 94

Elementary TCP Sockets…………………………………………………………………………… 96

Socket Function………………………………………………………………………………………….. 98

AF_xxx Versus PF_xxx………………………………………………………………………………….. 99

Connect Function……………………………………………………………………………………… 100

bind Function……………………………………………………………………………………………. 101

listen Function……………………………………………………………………………………….. 103

accept Function……………………………………………………………………………………….. 106

fork Function……………………………………………………………………………………………. 108

exec Function……………………………………………………………………………………………. 109

Concurrent Servers………………………………………………………………………………… 111

close Function…………………………………………………………………………………………… 113

getsockname And getpeername Functions……………………………………………. 114

Chapter.10 : TCP Client/Server Communication

Functions 

TCP Client/Server Communication…………………………………………………………. 117

Normal Session Startup………………………………………………………………………….. 121

Normal Session Termination………………………………………………………………….. 122

POSIX Signal Handling……………………………………………………………………………… 124

POSIX Signal Semantics…………………………………………………………………………….. 126

SIGCHLD Signals…………………………………………………………………………………………. 126

wait And waitpid Functions…………………………………………………………………. 128

difference between wait and waitpid Functions……………………………. 129

A Connection Abort Before accept Returns………………………………………… 132

Termination of Server Process……………………………………………………………… 134

SIGPIPE Signal…………………………………………………………………………………………… 135

Crashing of Server Host…………………………………………………………………………. 136

Crashing and Rebooting of Server Host……………………………………………… 137

Shutdown of Server Host……………………………………………………………………….. 137

Chapter.11 : I/O Multiplexing And Signal Handling

In Concurrent Servers 

under what situations i/o Multiplexing is used in network applications ?

which functions are capable for i/o Multiplexing ?……………………… 138

I/O Models…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 138

discuss the five basic i/o models of unix………………………………………….. 138

Comparison of the I/O Models…………………………………………………………………. 142

select Function…………………………………………………………………………………………. 143

Under What Conditions Is a Descriptor Ready?………………………………. 146

str_cli Function………………………………………………………………………………………. 148

Batch Input and Buffering……………………………………………………………………… 150

shutdown Function…………………………………………………………………………………….. 152

TCP Echo Server…………………………………………………………………………………………. 153

discuss with example the behaviour of tcp server before and after the clients have establish a connections……………………………. 153

pselect Function………………………………………………………………………………………. 157

poll Function…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 159

Chapter.12 : Elementary Names Address Conversions 

discuss the methods to convert names into numeric addresses for communication……………………………………………………………………………………… 162

gethostbyname Function………………………………………………………………………….. 163

gethostbyaddr Function………………………………………………………………………….. 165

Getservbyname And Getservbyport Functions…………………………………….. 166

Chapter.13 : Interoperability Between IPv4 And

IPv6 servers 

discuss the techniques for Interoperability between IPv4 and IPv6 server……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 170

discuss the techniques for Interoperability between IPv6 client and IPv4 server………………………………………………………………………………………. 173

tabulate the Interoperability between IPv4 and IPv6 server……… 174

explain the IPv6 Address-Testing Macros………………………………………… 175

explain the Source Code Portability between IPv4 and IPv6………… 176

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