Distributed Database Systems GNDU MSc Computer Science & IT E-Content Lecture Notes Books pdf Study Material online Download|Anand Classes|Neeraj K Anand

GNDU DISTRIBUTED DATABASE SYSTEMS Book Download pdf free lecture notes for teachers by neeraj k anand anand technical publishers buy amazon

Distributed Database Systems GNDU MSc Computer Science & IT E-Content Lecture Notes Books pdf Study Material online Download|Anand Classes|Neeraj K Anand

Author’s Words

 Istrongly believe that the Almighty God alone plans every thing that happens in the world. So, I sincerely thanks the Almighty God for showering his blessings upon me and using me to write this book.

I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my colleagues and students whom encouragement and co-operation have been source of great inspiration to me. I am thankful to my father Sh. Om Prakash Anand, my son Param Anand and my dear wife Neetu Anand for bringing me out this book. I hope that this edition of the book will prove to be more useful to the Science and Engineering students. Any suggestions for further improvement of the book will be gratefully acknowledged by the both author and publisher. Finally, we would like to thank my colleagues in the various Institutes whom have encouraged and assisted us to make our best efforts in bringing out this book.                                                               

                                                                                                                          NIT – Warangal, Telangana

                                                                                                                          Neeraj K. Anand

                                                                                                                         November 2021

Dedication

In The Everlasting Memory of My Mother

Late Smt. Nirmal Anand

About The Book

Distributed Database Systems book is meant for a wide range of readers, especially college and University students wishing to learn basic as well as advanced processes and techniques of distributed database system. It is intended for those who are professionally interested in having an up-to date view of distributed data processing, including, for example, students and teachers of course in computer science, researchers, system managers, application designers, analysts and programmers.

Distributed Database Systems book introduces principles and foundations of distributed databases systems, including architecture, design issues, integrity control, query processing and optimization, transactions and concurrency control. The readers will understand the difference between different database system and how queries are processed in a database.

Chapter-1

DISTRIBUTED DATABASE CONCEPTS

Introduction………………………………………. 8

DISTRIBUTED DATABASE CONCEPTS….. 9

distributed database management system     9

AN EXAMPLE OF DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM       10

Features of a Distributed DBMS…. 11

ADVANTAGES OF DISTRIBUTED DBMS. 12

disADVANTAGES OF DISTRIBUTED DBMS       13

FUNCTIONS OF DISTRIBUTED DBMS….. 14

DDBMS COMPONENTS……………………….. 15

comparison between PARALLEL DBMS and DISTRIBUTED DBMS          16

SHARED MEMORY ARCHITECTURE… 16

SHARED DISK ARCHITECTURE……….. 17

SHARED NOTHING ARCHITECTURE.. 17

structure of DDBMS……………………… 18

APPLICATIONS OF DISTRIBUTED DATABASES 19

DATE’S twelve RULES FOR DDBMS…. 19

Difference between centralized and distributed database systems…………………………………………… 20

 

Chapter-2

DISTRIBUTED DATABASE design

Introduction…………………………………….. 23

DISTRIBUTED DATABASE DESIGN CONCEPTS  23

Alternative Approaches for Distributed Database Design          24

Objectives of the Design of Data Distribution            26

Design Alternatives for Data Allocation       27

 

Chapter-3

DATABASE FRAGMENTATION AND REPLICATION DESIGN

Introduction…………………………………….. 30

CORRECTNESS OF FRAGMENTATION…. 30

HORIZONTAL FRAGMENTATION……….. 31

Primary Horizontal Fragmentation       31

derived Fragmentation………………. 34

VERTICAL FRAGMENTATION…………….. 40

Vertical Fragmentation Correctness Rules          42

MIXED FRAGMENTATION………………….. 43

Prove of properties of Mixed Fragmentation         46

ADVANTAGES OF FRAGMENTATION…. 47

disADVANTAGES OF FRAGMENTATION 48

No fragmentation………………………… 48

Vertical Fragmentation Generation Guidelines       48

Grouping……………………………………… 49

Splitting……………………………………… 49

Information Requirements for Vertical Fragmentation  50

Usage Matrix……………………………… 51

The Bond Energy Algorithm………. 53

Horizontal Fragmentation Generation Guidelines 60

Minimality and Completeness of Horizontal Fragmentation 61

DATA REPLICATION………………………….. 65

ADVANTAGES OF DATA REPLICATION……… 66

DISADVANTAGES OF DATA REPLICATION    66

Allocation of Fragments…………… 67

Allocation Problem…………………. 67

Information Requirements……… 69

Allocation Model…………………….. 70

 

Chapter-4

TRANSPARENCIES IN DISTRIBUTED DATABASE DESIGN

Management of distributed data with different levels of transparency…………………………………… 73

Data Independence……………………….. 73

Data Distribution Transparency. 74

Fragmentation Transparency.. 75

Location transparency…………… 76

Replication transparency………. 76

Local mapping transparency…. 78

Naming transparency……………… 78

Network transparency…………… 80

Transaction Transparency………… 81

Concurrency transparency…… 81

Failure transparency……………… 82

Performance Transparency………. 82

DBMS Transparency……………………… 83

 

Chapter-5

DISTRIBUTED DBMS ARCHITECTURE

DDBMS Architecture………………………… 84

ARCHITECTURAL MODELS FOR DISTRIBUTED DBMSs           84

Autonomy of local systems…… 84

Distribution……………………………….. 86

Heterogeneity…………………………… 86

Client/Server System…………………… 87

Advantages and Disadvantages of Client/Server System        88

Architecture of Client/Server Distributed Systems           89

Architectural Alternatives for Client/Server Systems   90

Two-tier architecture…………….. 90

THREE-TIER ARCHITECTURE………….. 92

MULTITIER ARCHITECTURE…………… 93

Peer-to-Peer Distributed System.. 94

Reference Architecture of Distributed DBMSs       95

component Architecture of Distributed DBMSs     98

Distributed Data Independence 102

 

Chapter-6

DISTRIBUTED QUERY PROCESSING

DISTRIBUTED QUERY PROCESSING CONCEPTS    104

Objectives of Query Processing.. 108

Phases (layers) in Distributed Query Processing       109

syntax analyzer………………………… 110

Query Decomposition…………………. 110

Query Fragmentation………………… 119

Reduction for primary horizontal fragmentation         120

Reduction for vertical fragmentation        122

Reduction for derived fragmentation          123

Reduction for Hybrid fragmentation            124

 

Chapter-7

DISTRIBUTED QUERY optimization

QUERY OPTIMIZATION CONCEPTS………. 126

Search space GENERATION………….. 128

Optimization strategy………………. 129

distributed cost model……………… 129

Cost functions…………………………. 130

Database statistics………………… 131

Cardinalities of intermediate results          132

Local (Centralized) Query Optimization           134

INGRES algorithm…………………….. 134

Join Strategies in Fragmented Relations         136

Simple Join Strategy……………….. 136

Semijoin Strategy……………………. 136

Global Query Optimization Algorithms            138

Distributed INGRES Algorithm. 138

Distributed R* Algorithm………. 140

SDD-1 Algorithm………………………. 142

 

Chapter-8

DISTRIBUTED TRANSACTION MANAGEMENT

Transactions, Read, Write Operations, and DBMS Buffers      144

ACID Properties of DBMS…………….. 146

Atomicity………………………………….. 146

Consistency………………………………. 147

DIRTY READ (INCONSISTENT READ PROBLEM)       147

Isolation…………………………………… 148

Durability………………………………… 151

Implementation of Atomicity…… 152

Implementation of consistency. 153

IMPLEMENTING ISOLATION…………….. 155

IMPLEMENTING DURABILITY…………… 156

Objectives of Distributed Transaction Management          157

A Model for Transaction Management in a Distributed System 157

Transaction Manager……………. 158

Transaction coordinator…….. 158

Classification of Transactions.. 159

 

Chapter-9

DISTRIBUTED CONCURRENCY CONTROL

Introduction…………………………………… 165

Objectives of Distributed Concurrency Control     165

Concurrency Control Anomalies 165

Schedule……………………………………….. 169

Equivalence…………………………………. 169

Serializable Schedules……………… 170

Serializability in a Distributed System 172

Serializability in Replicated Databases           174

Conflict Serializable Schedules 174

View Serializable Schedules… 174

Recoverable Schedules…………. 175

Cascadeless Schedules………….. 175

Classification of Concurrency Control Techniques          176

LOCKING-BASED CONCURRENCY CONTROL ALGORITHMS   178

Two-Phase Locking………………….. 180

Basic, Conservative, Strict, and Rigorous Two-Phase Locking…………………………………………………….. 181

Centralized 2PL………………………… 182

Primary Copy 2PL……………………… 183

Two-Phase Locking in Distributed Systems       184

Timestamp-Based Concurrency Control Protocols 186

Basic Timestamp Ordering (TO) Algorithm        188

Conservative TO Algorithm……… 189

Multiversion Concurrency Control Algorithm       190

Optimistic Concurrency Control Technique   192

 

Chapter-10

DISTRIBUTED DEADLOCK MANAGEMENT

DEADLOCK CONCEPT………………………….. 196

Reasons for Deadlock Occurrence 196

Transaction Location Issue……… 198

Transaction Control Issue……….. 199

Distributed Deadlock Prevention 199

Distributed Deadlock Avoidance 202

Distributed Deadlock Detection and Recovery        203

Centralized Deadlock Detections       204

Hierarchical Deadlock Detections    204

Distributed Deadlock Detection 205

False Deadlocks…………………………. 207

 

Chapter-11

DISTRIBUTED recovery MANAGEMENT

DISTRIBUTED Recovery Management CONCEPT       208

Failures in a Distributed Database System      208

Steps Followed after a Failure.. 210

DATABASE RECOVERY…………………….. 211

Logging Process………………………. 211

RECOVERY PROCESS……………………….. 212

Checkpointing……………………………… 212

Distributed Commit Protocols… 213

Two-Phase Commit Protocol (2PC) 214

Termination protocols for 2PC… 216

2PC Coordinator Termination Protocols      216

2PC Participant Termination Protocols         216

Recovery protocols for 2PC…….. 217

Recovering from a Failure Using State Information       218

2PC Coordinator Recovery Process     218

2PC Participant Recovery Process……. 218

New Coordinator Election in 2PC 219

Multiple Site Failures in 2PC….. 219

Two-Phase Commit Performance. 219

Presumed Commit and Presumed Abort          219

Three-Phase Commit Protocol….. 221

Termination protocols in 3PC…… 223

2PC Coordinator Termination Protocols      223

2PC Participant Termination Protocols         223

Recovery protocols for 3PC…….. 225

3PC Coordinator Recovery Process     225

3PC Participant Recovery Process……. 225

Multiple Site Failures in 3PC….. 225

Election protocol………………………. 226

Network Partitioning and Quorum-Based Commit Protocol        226

Pessimistic Protocols…………………. 228

Optimistic Protocols………………….. 230

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