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Topic : Concepts on Mountain Terrain and Lifestyle.
Mountain Terrain and Lifestyle. Sainik School Coaching Jalandhar
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There are three types of mountains- Fold Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic Mountains.
A plateau is an elevated flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area.
Plains are large stretches of flat land.
- Any natural elevation of the earth surface is called a Mountain.
- Range- Mountains arranged in a line.
- Glaciers – Glaciers are permanently frozen rivers of ice in mountains.
There are three types of mountains and they are:
- Fold Mountains
- They are rugged relief and high conical peaks.
- g. Himalayan Mountains and the Alps (Young fold mountains)
- The Aravali range in India (oldest fold mountain system in the world)
- The Appalachians in North America and the Ural mountains in Russia (very old fold mountains). MC RMS Coaching Jalandhar. Online Sainik School Coaching
- Block Mountains
- Created when a large mass of land is broken and displaced vertically.
- g. The Rhine valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe
- Volcanic Mountains
- Formed due to volcanic activity.
- g. Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt. Fujiyama in Japan.
How the Mountains are useful?
- Mountains are very useful in various ways.
- They are the storehouse of water and many rivers have their basis in the glaciers in the mountain.
- Reservoirs are made and water is harnessed for the use of people.
- Water from the mountains is also used for irrigation and generation of hydro-electricity.
- Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna.
- The forests provide fuel, fodder, shelter and other products like gum, raisins, etc.
- Mountains also provide a tranquil site for tourists.
- A plateau is an elevated flat land.
- It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area.
- e.g. The Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus.
- The Western plateau of Australia, the East African Plateau in Kenya (The Tanzania and Uganda), the Tibet plateau (the highest plateau in the world) etc.
How Plateaus are useful?
- Plateaus are very useful as they are rich in mineral deposits.
- E.g. African plateau is famous for gold and diamond mining
- Chhotanagpur plateau in India is a huge reserve of iron, coal and manganese
- Plains are large stretches of flat land.
- Generally, not more than 200 metres above mean sea level.
- Generally, plains are very fertile; hence these plains are very thickly-populated regions of the world. RIMC RMS Coaching Jalandhar. Online Sainik School Coaching
- E.g. largest plains made by the rivers are found in Asia and North America
- Large plains in Asia are formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra in India and the Yangtze in China.
How the Plains are useful?
- Plains are the most useful areas for human habitation.
- Building houses, construction of the transport network, as well as for cultivation is easy.
- In India, the Indo-Gangetic plains are the most densely populated regions.
(a) What are the major landforms?
(b) What is the difference between a mountain and a plateau?
(c) What are the different types of mountains?
(d) How are mountains useful to man?
(e) How are plains formed?
(f) Why are the river plains thickly populated?
(g) Why are mountains thinly populated?
(a) The major landforms are:
(b)The difference between a mountain and a plateau is given below:
|A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth surface.||A plateau is an elevated flat land.|
|It is considerably higher than the surrounding area.||It is a flat-topped tableland, standing above the surrounding area.|
(c) There are 3 different types of Mountains:
(d) Mountains are useful to man in various ways:
Mountains are a storehouse of water.
Water from the mountains is also used for irrigation and generation of hydro-electricity.
The river valleys and terraces are ideal for the cultivation of crops.
Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna.
The forests provide fuel, fodder, shelter and other products like gum, raisins, etc.
Several sports like paragliding, hang gliding, river rafting and skiing are popular in the mountains.
(e) When the rivers flow through mountain slopes, erosion of mountains occur. The flowing river carries the eroded material and the deposit materials like silt, clay and stones are gathered on the valleys. This leads to the formation of plains.
(f) River plains are thickly populated because of the fertility of the plains. This makes the construction of a transportation network comparatively easier.
(g) Mountains are thinly populated because :
The climate is harsh at the mountain areas.
Slopes are steep at the mountains and that reduces the land available for farming.
2. Tick the correct answers.
(a) The mountains differ from the hills in terms of
(i) elevation (ii) slope (iii) aspect
(b) Glaciers are found in
(i) the mountains (ii) the plains (iii) the plateaus
(c) The Deccan Plateau is located in
(i) Kenya (ii) Australia (iii) India
(d) The river Yangtze flows in
(i) South America (ii) Australia (iii) China
(e) An important mountain range of Europe is
(i) the Andes (ii) the Alps (iii) the Rockies
(i) the mountains
(ii) the Alps
3. Fill in the blanks.
1. A ___________ is an unbroken flat or a low-level land.
2. The Himalayas and the Alps are examples of _______________types of mountains.
3. _____________ areas are rich in mineral deposits.
4. The _________________ is a line of mountains.
5. The ____________areas are most productive for farming.
Answer 3. MC RMS Coaching Jalandhar. Online Sainik School Coaching
1. A Plain is an unbroken flat or a low-level land.
2. The Himalayas and the Alps are examples of fold types of mountains.
3. Plateau areas are rich in mineral deposits.
4. The Range is a line of mountains.
5. The plain areas are most productive for farming.
RIMC RMS Coaching Jalandhar. Online Sainik School Coaching
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